On July 22, 2011, Anders Behring Breivik planted a bomb near government buildings in Oslo, killing eight people. He then proceeded to methodically murder sixty-nine victims on the nearby island of Utøya. Like other psychotic mass murderers, Mr. Breivik authored a rambling manifesto before carrying out the carnage.
Just prior to embarking on the killing spree, Mr. Breivik took a cocktail known as an ECA stack, consisting of the stimulant ephedrine, combined with caffeine and aspirin. It was also revealed in court that Mr. Breivik had been taking anabolic steroids.
Banned by the FDA as a dietary supplement in the U.S., the stimulant ephedrine has been documented in the scientific literature to cause psychosis that subsides after withdrawal from the drug.
An association between anabolic steroids and homicide and near-homicide has also been documented in the scientific literature.
Referring to the drugs taken by Mr. Breivik, an expert testified during trial: “I cannot exclude that they could have contributed to his aggressiveness and agitation.”
Victims: Mona Abdinur, Ismail Haji Ahmed, Thomas Margido Antonsen, Porntip Ardam, Modupe Ellen Awoyemi, Lene Maria Bergum, Kevin Daae Berland, Trond Berntsen, Sverre Flåte Bjørkavåg, Torjus Jakobsen Blattmann, Carina Borgund, Monica Elisabeth Bøsei, Johannes Buø, Åsta Sofie Helland Dahl, Sondre Furseth Dale, Monica Iselin Didriksen, Gizem Dogan, Andreas Edvardsen, Tore Eikeland, Bendik Rosnæs Ellingsen, Hanna Endresen, Aleksander Aas Eriksen, Andrine Hills Espeland, Hanne Balch Fjalestad, Silje Merete Fjellbu, Hanne Kristine Fridtun, Andreas Dalby Grønnesby, Snorre Haller, Kai Hauge, Rune Havdal, Guro Vartdal Håvoll, Ingrid Berg Heggelund, Ida Marie Hill, Karin Elena Holst, Anne Lise Holter, Eivind Hovden, Steinar Jessen, Maria Maagerø Johannesen, Ronja Søttar Johansen, Espen Jørgensen, Sondre Kjøren, Margrethe Bøyum Kløven, Syvert Knudsen, Tove Åshill Knutsen, Anders Kristiansen, Jon Vegard Lervåg, Elisabeth Trønnes Lie, Gunnar Linaker, Tamta Lipartelliani, Hanne Ekroll Løvlie, Eva Kathinka Lütken, Even Flugstad Malmedal, Tarald Kuven Mjelde, Ruth Benedicte Vatndal Nilsen, Håkon Ødegaard, Emil Okkenhaug, Diderik Aamodt Olsen, Henrik André Pedersen, Christopher Perreau, Bano Abobakar Rashid, Henrik Rasmussen, Ida Beathe Rogne, Synne Røyneland, Karar Mustafa Qasim, Simon Sæbø, Kjersti Sandberg, Marianne Sandvik, Fredrik Lund Schjetne Lejla Selaci, Birgitte Smetbak, Isabel Victoria Green Sogn, Silje Stamneshagen, Victoria Stenberg, Tina Sukuvara, Sharidyn Svebakk-Bøhn, Havard Vederhus, Jamil Rafal Yasin